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When citing a reprint or modern edition in the author-date system, it is sometimes desirable to include the original date of publication.
According to the Two Source Hypothesis accepted by a majority of contemporary scholars, the authors of Matthew and Luke each made use of two different sources: the Gospel of Mark and a non-extant second source termed Q.
The siglum Q derives from the German word "Quelle," which means "Source." Q primarily consists of the "double tradition" material, that which is present in both Matthew and Luke but not Mark.
However, Q may also contain material that is preserved only by Matthew or only by Luke (called "Sondergut") as well as material that is paralleled in Mark (called Mark/Q overlaps).
The proclamations of judgment at the beginning and end of the document are directed against Israel (cf.
Luke 3.7-9Q; Luke 22.28-30Q), numerous logia are centered on Palestine by their geographical references and the cultural world they assume (cf.
only Luke 7.1Q; 10.13-15Q), the bearers of the Q tradition understand themselves to be faithful to the Law (cf. Q -15 announces the coming judgment explicitly with the view to two Galilean towns, Chorazin and Bethsaida: even Tyre and Didon will be better off in the coming judgment.
Luke 16.17Q; Luke 11.42Q), and Q polemic is directed against Pharisees (cf. And the same saying threatens that Capernaum will be condemned to Hades.
On the matter of whether Q was written, Tuckett writes (The Anchor Bible Dictionary, v. 568): "The theory that Q represents a mass of oral traditions does not account for the common order in Q material, which can be discerned once Matthew's habit of collecting related material into his large teaching discourses is discounted (Taylor 1953, 1959).
Such a common order demands a theory that Q at some stage existed in written form." C. Tuckett comments on the argument that variations between Matthew and Luke are due to variant translations of an Aramaic Q (op. 567-568): It is doubtful if more than a very few cases of variation between Matthew and Luke can be explained in this way.
Some scholars have observed that the Gospel of Thomas and the Q material, as contrasted with the four canonical gospels, are similar in their emphasis on the sayings of Jesus instead of the passion of Jesus.
Arguments in favor of the Two Source Hypothesis can be found in the essay on The Existence of Q.
But some caution with respect to such conclusion seems advisable for several reasons. Polemic against the Pharisees cannot confirm Galilean provenence - Greek-speaking Pharisees could be found elsewhere in the diaspora, viz., Paul who persecuted the church in Greek-speaking synagogues, probably in Syria or Cilicia.